Author Archives: GEC

Water development projects

Investments in water utility projects totals some $46.7 billion 73%; treatment plants total $15.4 billion, 24%; and water transfer systems total $2.0 billion, 3%. Combined water and sewage projects account for 51% of investments; water only projects accounted for 31%; and sewage only projects for 15%. This is in stark contrast to the situation from […]

Water Resources

Water is the most important of all natural resources for both land conservation and the welfare of mankind. The basic need to support life is 4 litres of water daily and an average city dweller requires about 400 litres per day for his needs and services; washing, cleaning, cooking and bathing. The total volume of […]

The Brazilian Transmission System

In Brazil, in 1993, the National Electric Power Transmission System (Sintrel) was created to ensure free access to the national electric interconnected grid to independent producers and self producers on an at cost basis. Sintrel was made up largely of transmission systems owned by the companies controlled by Eletrobas, which was also the entity in […]

The Canadian T&D Sector

Canadian utilities are engaged in the North American transition towards competitive markets and are integrated with the American regional systems. The electricity supply industry in Canada is organised on a regional basis. The various utilities, responsible for electricity generation, transmission and distribution in each area, frequently trade power with each other via some of the […]

Grid 2030

The cost of replacing the power delivery system in the US would be prohibitive. What can be done is to employ advanced technology to modernise and enhance the use of existing assets. The DOE has a vision of the grid in 2030 which builds on the existing electric infrastructure. The same types of equipment that […]