Water Stress

Many parts of the world are experiencing severe water stress with limited fresh water supplies. In some parts of the world water use exceeds renewable water capacity – renewable water is defined as surface and underground water supplies that are replenished by rainwater. These regions often use non-renewable ground water supplies, which are also further […]

Water Resources

Water is the most important of all natural resources for both land conservation and the welfare of mankind. The basic need to support life is 4 litres of water daily and an average city dweller requires about 400 litres per day for his needs and services; washing, cleaning, cooking and bathing. The total volume of […]

Development of the Single Global Coal Market

The existence of a single market arose from the growth in seaborne coal trade brought on by the combination of firstly, growth in the demand for coking coal in the 1960s and secondly, sharply rising oil prices during the 1970s. Before 1960, international coal trade had been primarily land based, and been between neighbouring countries. […]

The effectiveness of energy market deregulation in smaller markets

There is some evidence that deregulation does not work as effectively in small markets, because there is not enough volume to justify a large enough number of participants at the various levels. This was foreseen by some of the small countries when the EU Directives were first proposed and Ireland, Malta, Greece, Cyprus and Portugal […]

The Canadian T&D Sector

Canadian utilities are engaged in the North American transition towards competitive markets and are integrated with the American regional systems. The electricity supply industry in Canada is organised on a regional basis. The various utilities, responsible for electricity generation, transmission and distribution in each area, frequently trade power with each other via some of the […]

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